Achaemenid artwork shows the Immortals decked out in gold jewelry and hoop earrings, and Herodotus asserts that they wore their bling into battle. The Immortals were armed with short spears, swords, bow and arrows. We present an example from classical history that perfectly illustrates the concept of a self-organizing system, namely, the “Persian Immortals” described by Herodotus. Darius also fought the fierce, nomadic Scythian people, whom he defeated in 513 BCE. The first invasion was defeated by Athens at Marathon in 490 bc. Persian Immortals. Cyrus the Great, who founded the Achaemenid Empire, seems to have originated the idea of having an elite corps of imperial guards. Mark, Joshua J. The remaining 9,000 had silver pomegranates. Their legs were covered in trousers and instead of normal shields they carried pieces of wickerwork. (VII.5.68). Herodotus also informs us that the Immortals were maintained at a troop strength of exactly 10,000 at all times. In any case, the story of the Persian Immortals may have been distorted over time, but it is obvious even at this distance in time and space that they were a fighting force to be reckoned with. The Immortals fought under Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius the Great; when not in combat they acted as the Persian Palace Guard. The Immortals came from elite, aristocratic families. In 525 BCE, Cyrus's son Cambyses II defeated the Egyptian Pharaoh Psamtik III's army at the Battle of Pelusium, extending Persian control across Egypt. Cite This Work Military service began at the age of 20, and professional soldiers were allowed to retire at 50; afterwards they were rewarded with land grants and a pension in thanks for their service. Xenophon, who fought as a mercenary in Persia for Cyrus the Younger (d. 401 BCE) would have no doubt heard stories of the Immortals. Although the majority of the members were Persian, the corps also included aristocratic men from the previously-conquered Elamite and Median Empires. Polyaenus attests to Alexander’s policy of keeping the Immortals intact in his Strategems: When deciding legal cases among the Macedonians or the Greeks, Alexander preferred to have a modest and common courtroom. The result was no different, because the factors were the same: they were fighting in a restricted area, using spears which were shorter than those wielded by the Greeks, and could not take advantage of their numerical superiority. Immortal (Susa) In his description of the battle of Thermopylae (480 BCE), the Greek researcher Herodotus mentions a Persian elite corps which he calls the Ten Thousand or the Athanatoi, the "Immortals".He describes them as. He then included Median and Elamite warriors in his army, often giving Medes and Elamites command positions. In the middle of the room stood the gold throne, on which Alexander sat to give audiences. The heavy cavalry of the Parthians would be taken as a model by Ardashir I when he founded the Sassanian Empire and would form the basic paradigm of the Sassanian Immortals. The Persian Immortals were an elite combat unit during the First Persian Empire, also known as the Achaemenid Empire. Men with Shields & Spears from Persepolis, by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin (CC BY-NC-SA), Statue of a Young Military Commander, Hatra. It involved a wide range of skill development, including archery, fighting, and how to live off the land. Under the reign of Kosrau I (also known as Anushirvan the Just, r. 531-579 CE), the military, including the Immortals, was at its height but could not defend against the more mobile – and numerous – forces of the Muslim Arabs who defeated the Sassanians in 651 CE through their use of fleet-footed archers and camel-mounted cavalry who could maneuver more easily on rough or sandy terrain. (2019, November 26). (VII.83). The Persian Immortals are highly trained and skilled swordsmen that are excellent attackers in the ancient era. Immortals are the Persian unique Heavy Infantry of the Ancient Age that replaces the standard Hoplites. These troops also served as the imperial guard. They were trained to endure cold, heat, and rain and to march under any type of difficult weather. Their shields were woven out of wicker. Pound for pound. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. The Persian Immortals were the heavy infantry for the Persian army, their name stemmed from the fact that if one of the Immortals was to fall in battle, they would be instantly replaced by another warrior. As the best of the best in the Persian army, the Immortals received certain perks. Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Asian history and culture. Clibanarii had armored horses while the cataphracts did not. Whether writers such as Xenophon (l. 430 - c. 354 BCE) or Polyaenus (l. 2nd century CE) who also mention them drew on Herodotus as well seems unlikely since they both provide information not found in Herodotus’ Histories. According to the Greeks, the Immortals and the other Persian soldiers were vain, effeminate, and not very effective compared with their Greek counterparts. Like most things in the Achaemenid Empire, the Immortals were equal opportunity -- at least for elites from other ethnic groups. They practiced standing guard, they trained for arduous marches, and finally every Persian boy in training needed to know how to tame a wild horse. When deciding cases among the Bactrians, Hyrcanians, and Indians, he had a tent made as follows: the tent was large enough for 100 couches; fifty gold pillars supported it; embroidered gold canopies, stretched out above, covered the place. After the Iranian Revolution of 1979 CE, the Javidan Guard was disbanded. Cyrus the Great defeated the Medes, who had controlled the region, and then embarked on a series of campaigns to expand his territory, conquering Lydia in 546 BCE, Elam in 540 BCE, and Babylon in 539 BCE. The Ten Thousand Immortals were the elite force of the Persian army of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE). The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. As the best of the best in the Persian army, the Immortals received certain perks. After the Muslim Arab conquest and fall of the Sassanian Empire, the Persian army – including the Immortals – was disbanded. From birth, boys were kept separate from their fathers until the age of five. License. Books Ancient History Encyclopedia. They have vast resources, and funds. This particular method will require that you have reached episode 3 of the DLC. The top 1,000 had gold pomegranates on the ends of their spears, designating them as officers and as the king's personal bodyguard. This claim is challenged, however, by the accounts of the Immortals as the elite unit in the later Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE). According to this claim, then, the 10,000 Immortals were no more than a unit of infantry and Herodotus inflated their reputation through his penchant for story-telling. The founder of that empire, Ardashir I (r. 224-240 CE), organized his military to mirror that of the Achaemenid Empire (drawing equally from models such as Parthian warfare and the Roman army) and included the 10,000 Immortals. by dynamosquito (CC BY-SA) The Ten Thousand Immortals were the elite force of the Persian army of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE). They are believed to be the same group from Persian mythology. They were known for being at ten thousand strong at all times for which they actually seemed to be technically immortal. The ancient historians make no attempt to be unbiased in their descriptions. The more durable and resistant Greek shields and body armor, as well as their more effective weapons, outstripped those of the Persians and placed the Persian army at a distinct disadvantage, especially significant at the Battle of Platea in 479 BCE which was most likely fought by regular Persian forces, not the Immortals, who seem to have withdrawn with Xerxes I after the Persian defeat at Salamis in 480 BCE. "Persian Immortals." They formed the king’s personal bodyguard and were also considered the shock troops of the infantry in Persian warfare. In the present day, unfortunately, the Immortals are best known in popular culture through their depiction in Frank Miller’s 1998 CE graphic novel 300 and the 2006 CE film of the same name which was based on it, relating the story of the Battle of Thermopylae and the heroic stand of Leonidas and his 300 Spartans in 480 BCE. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. The Immortals were armed with short stabbing spears, bows and arrows, and swords. This gave the illusion that they were truly immortal, and could not be injured or slain. The Immortals unit was continued under Darius I (r. 522-486 BCE), and it is assumed they took part in the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE when Darius I invaded Greece during the Persian Wars and was defeated. The "Immortals", "Ten Thousand Immortals", or "Persian Immortals" were said to be an elite force of soldiers who fought for the Achaemenid Empire. The Ten Thousand Immortals were the elite force of the Persian army of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE). The Immortals carried this same weaponry. The 10,000 elite heavy infantry of Cyrus the Great were called by the Greek historian Herodotus “The Immortals”. The Seleucids were succeeded by the Parthian Empire who decentralized the government and established a feudal system, essentially returning to the paradigm of the kara in which satraps decreed a levy of troops when the need arose. They formed the king’s personal bodyguard and were also considered the shock troops of the infantry in Persian warfare. Chrissanthos describes the training required of the sons of Persian and Median nobles: From the age of five, chosen nobles were trained to use the bow, throw the javelin, and ride. (23). Only those with sufficient wealth to procure their own military equipment were liable for service; therefore, the levy, or kara, represented the wealthier elements of Persian society. The Immortals played an important role in Persian history, acting as both the Imperial Guard and the standing army during the expansion of the Persian Empire and the Greco-Persian Wars. Kept constantly at a strength of 10,000 men, they formed the heart of the Persian (Achaemenid) army. Their weapons were the sword, battle-axe, mace, javelin, and lance. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. According to Iranian historical tradition, the Immortals were first organized by the commander Pantea Arteshbod with her husband General Aryasb, possibly after their participation in the Battle of Opis in 539 BCE. Related Content Cyrus created a standing army (the spada) but kept the old levy system known as the kara. Ok, lets compare 1,000 Spartans vs 1,000 immortals in close combat in an open field. Bodyguards stood on each side when the king heard cases. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Again, the Immortals likely served as the shock troops; they were so feared after their campaign against Babylon that the Phoenicians, the Cypriots, and the Arabs of Judea and the Sinai Peninsula all decided to ally themselves with Persians rather than fighting them. ), Deipnosophistai 12.514c (who is quoting Heracleides of Cumae); Hesychius, Lexicon s.v. The reported Greek name and the size of the force is identical to the "Immortals" infantry unit of the Achaemenid Empire described by Herodotus. Under the Sassanian Empire, the Immortals (as noted) were cavalry units. The Immortals were first formed under the reign of Cyrus II (The Great, r. c. 550-530 BCE), founder of the Achaemenid Empire. The training of Persian Immortals was difficult and started early. They attempted to retrieve the Golden fleece, but their efforts were thwarted by Lara Croft, and Trinity.Their leader is … IMMORTALS (Gk. (4.3.24). They were only accepted if they were of Persian, Elamite or Median ethnicity. They were instructed on their duties to the Persian god, the Persian people, and especially the Persian king and the Achaemenid family. The name itself was coined by Herodotus, the Greek Historian and the Immortals themselves were consider… The Sassanian army was so effective that it was able to repeatedly defeat the legions of the Roman Empire, defend Sassanian territory from other incursions, and maintain stability for almost 400 years. Inside the tent 500 Persian Apple Bearers stood first, dressed in purple and yellow clothing. “Immortals” took part in the most important battles of the Persian Empire, in particular, in the war with the New Babylonian kingdom in 547 BC, in the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses (525 BC), in the campaigns of Darius I to India and Scythia, and especially in the Greco-Persian wars, when the “immortal” were commanded by Gidarn the Younger. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Herodotus has been criticized – by ancient as well as modern writers – for errors in his work as well as embellishments and exaggerations and so some modern scholars have advanced the claim that there never were any 10,000 Immortals in the Persian army (ignoring or explaining away their mention by Xenophon and Polyaenus) arguing that Herodotus confused the Old Persian word for “follower” (anusiya) with the word anausa (“immortal”). He is the source of their name, in fact, and it may be a mistranslation. The “Apple Bearers” Polyaenus mentions were the Persian officers who had a gold counterbalance at the bottom of their spears; regular troops had one of silver. (VII.211). Modern reenactors of the Immortals in their ceremonial dress at the 2,500-year celebration of the Persian Empire. We do not have any independent confirmation that Herodotus's information on this is accurate; nevertheless, the elite corps is often referred to as the "Ten Thousand Immortals" to this day. The Immortals were the best the Persian army had to offer and only ever accompanied the great king when he lead his army on campaign. a body of picked Persians under the leadership of Hydarnes, the son of Hydarnes.This corps was known as the Immortals, because it was invariably kept up to strength; if … The Immortals were a strong corps of heavy infantry deployed by the Persian Empire in the fifth century BC. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. The remaining 9,000 had silver pomegranates. Mark, Joshua J. With his last victory over the new Babylonian Empire, at the Battle of Opis in 539 BCE, Cyrus was able to name himself "king of the four corners of the world" thanks in part to the efforts of his Immortals. He used them as heavy infantry in his campaigns to conquer the Medes, the Lydians, and even the Babylonians. The Immortals were revived in the 20th century CE under the reign of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (r. 1941-1979 CE) who instituted a unit of all-volunteer soldiers known as the Javidan Guard (comprising 4,000-5,000 soldiers) as his “Immortals” in an effort to link himself to the illustrious past of the Achaemenid and Sassanian Persian empires. Herodotus provides a description of the Persian forces of the Achaemenid army in Book VII.61. The unit was exclusive and soldiers had to apply to join it. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. They replace the Swordsman.. A Persian city must have iron in its Strategic Resource box to build Immortals. The only source for the Immortals is Herodotus' account of Xerxes' invasion of Greece. Then they would be taken to start their warrior training. Among the best elite forces of the ancient world. This expansion gave the Persians access to the rich trading routes through India, as well as the gold and other wealth of that land. He claimed that the unit's name stemmed from the custom that every killed, seriously wounded or sick member was immediately replaced with a new one, maintaining the numbers and cohesion of the unit. If an infantryman was killed, sick, or wounded, a reservist would immediately be called up to take his place. In a circle around the tent stood the corps of elephants Alexander had equipped, and 1,000 Macedonians wearing Macedonian apparel. These depictions serve no purpose other than to denigrate the image of some of the greatest warriors of the ancient world. Their name comes from the policy of always keeping their number at exactly 10,000; if one of their number were killed or could not otherwise fulfill his responsibilities, another was chosen to replace him, thus giving the impression that they could not be killed and so were immortal and invincible. They wore fish scale armor covered by robes, and a headdress often called a tiara that reportedly could be used to shield the face from wind-driven sand or dust. Their character was not ignored; they were taught Persian religion and respect for their god, Ahura Mazda, and they learned the history of their people and especially the noble deeds of heroic men. The corps was kept intact by Alexander (who styled himself as the successor to Darius III and is often referred to as the last king of the Achaemenid Empire). Scholar Stefan G. Chrissanthos comments: Initially, the Persian army consisted of a militia of the king’s Persian subjects. Mark, published on 26 November 2019 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. This elite corps is only called the 'Immortals' in sources based on Herodotus. However, not all Persians participated. She is also said to have been their first commander which is quite likely since evidence of women serving in high-ranking positions in the Persian military has long been substantiated by physical evidence in tombs and the accounts of Greek and Roman historians. Statue of a Young Military Commander, Hatraby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin (CC BY-NC-SA). They are first mentioned by Herodotus (l. c. 484-425/413 BCE) in his Histories (VII.83.1, VII.211.1, VIII.113.2), and later writers who mention them such as Heracleides of Cumae (c. 350 BCE) or Athenaeus of Naucratis (l. 2nd/early 3rd century CE) and others are thought to have drawn on Herodotus’ work. Though he opposed Persia, he kept detailed battle plans of the Immortals and those that faced them. The Persians never had to concern themselves with these aspects of warfare prior to their engagements with Greece because the other regions they had encountered – the Lydians, Elamites, and others – used the same weapons and armor they did. He would likely have kept a guard of Immortals for his own protection, but cavalry would have been much more effective than heavy infantry against a highly mobile foe like the Scythians. The Immortals came from elite, aristocratic families. The "Immortals" (Greek: Ἀθάνατοι Athanatoi) is a name used by Roman historians of the Roman-Persian Wars to refer to an elite unit of the army of the Sasanian Empire. The Persian Immortal. She has taught at the high school and university levels in the U.S. and South Korea. 7.83.2. Mark, J. J. Herodotus also describes the personal apparel of the Immortals and the baggage train which followed them into battle: Their equipment has already been described, but they were also conspicuous for the huge amount of gold they wore about their persons. Their food was spare and they were taught to live off the land if necessary. The Persian Immortals. The conscripts came from all the subject nations of the empire, from Anatolia to Egypt to Central Asia, but the core of the spada were Persians and Medes, and it was from this group that the Immortals were chosen. Xerxes I launched his massive invasion of Greece in retaliation for the Persian defeat at Marathon ten years earlier but was met by stiff resistance at the pass of Thermopylae by the Spartan general Leonidas I (r. 490-480 BCE) who, realizing his precarious position against numerically superior forces, sent away the majority of the defending troops and met the enemy primarily with the 300 Spartans under his direct command. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. There is evidence of the existence of a permanent corps from Persian sources, which provi… 27/03/2020: The immortals The Persian army was a formidable fighting force created by absorbing foreign armies (starting with the Medians) and their respective tactics, as the Roman did centuries later. They carried light shields and wore scale mail armor. The Immortals continued as the elite corps throughout the remainder of the Achaemenid Empire up through the Battle of Gaugamela (331 BCE) against the forces of Alexander the Great, under Darius III (r. 336-330 BCE) where they were defeated through a combination of Alexander’s superior military tactics and their own weaponry. While on the campaign, they had a supply train of mule-drawn carts and camels that brought along special foods reserved only for them. One such example happened to make its way into the 2006 film, 300. athánatoi), name of a corps of 10,000 Persian élite infantry soldiers in Herodotus (7.83.1, 211.1; 8.113.2).The later attestations in Athenaios (q.v. They are also thought to have gone with Cyrus’ son Cambyses II (r. 530-522 BCE) on his Egyptian campaign in 525 BCE. Written by Joshua J. https://www.ancient.eu/Persian_Immortals/. A Spartan at Thermopylae scoffed at a Persian envoy who said their arrows could “black out the sky” by replying, “then we’ll fight in the shade.” The Persian Immortals, also better known as the Immortals, are an antagonistic faction of the 2007 film 300, based on the graphic novel 300 by Frank Miller. Last, they were trained to speak the truth, an item that was approvingly noted by numerous Greek historians. Here are the Spartan hoplites. They were known as “Apple Bearers” because the round counterbalance looked like an apple. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Herodotus, Chronicler of the Persian Immortals, Cyrus the Great - Persian Achaemenid Dynasty Founder, Rulers of the Persian Empire: Expansionism of Cyrus and Darius, Biography of Xerxes, King of Persia, Enemy of Greece, Important Kings of the Ancient Middle East, Biography of Darius the Great, Leader of Persia's Achaemenid Empire, J.D., University of Washington School of Law, B.A., History, Western Washington University. Last modified November 26, 2019. The Parthians were aware of the weakness of a centralized government with a standing army which had to be mobilized and set in motion and so allowed for different satrapies to raise their own forces to deal with threats and had no need for a central corps of Immortals. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Persian_Immortals/. They carried a wicker shield known as a gerron, though they adopted the Greek aspisduring the Greco-Persian Wars after realizing that it offered far greater protection against the Greeks' weapons. The Immortals were the most renowned ancient Persian warriors, feared for their mass scale of attack and the fact that if you were to kill one Persian warrior another one would appear instantaneously giving the appearance of course, that they were indeed immortal. Some of these sources claim the unit was composed of 10,000 cavalrymen. In both empires, the Immortals were chosen from the warriors who had proven themselves worthy both in martial skill and quality of character and were the most formidable unit in the armies of two of the greatest empires of the ancient world. We have beautiful depictions of them from the walls of the Achaemenid capital city of Susa, Iran, but unfortunately, our historical documentation about them comes from the Persians' enemies -- not really an unbiased source. Such was Alexander's courtroom among the barbarians. From Hdt. They also brought covered wagons for their concubines, sizeable and well-equipped retinues of slaves, and their own personal provisions, separate from those of the other soldiers, transported by camels and yoke-animals. The ancient Persian warriors were soldiers for the Persian Empire during the phases of its military life. Web. The Achaemenid Empire of Persia (550 - 330 BCE) had an elite corps of heavy infantry that was so effective, it helped them to conquer much of the known world. It has often been claimed that the images of Persian warriors at the cities of Susa and Persepolis represent the 10,000 Immortals but, based on this description, it is more likely that they are representations of the regular Persian army with, perhaps, the occasional image of an Immortal: On their heads they wore tiaras, as they call them, which are loose, felt caps, and their bodies were clothed in colorful tunics with sleeves (and breastplates) of iron plate, looking rather like fish-scales. 17 Dec 2020. It was expected that they would easily finish the job, but when they came to engage the Greeks, they were no more successful than the Medes had been. Ancient History Encyclopedia. They divided their army into light and heavy cavalry with infantry playing a minor role in engagements. They also carried two composite bows, two bowstrings, a quiver with 30 arrows and, sometimes a sling with stones or pellets. The central weakness of the Immortals against the Greeks – at Thermopylae and other engagements – was the inferiority of their weapons and body armor when compared to that of the Greeks. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The Persians under the Achaemenid king Darius I tried to subdue Greece with two major invasions. Seleucus I continued Alexander’s policies and kept the basic form of the Achaemenid Empire but whether he also retained the corps of the Immortals is unknown. These warriors, as noted, were heavily armed cavalry and served as the backbone of the Sassanian military. The Immortals were chosen from the warriors who had proven themselves worthy both in martial skill & quality of character. The Persians, in fact, did not regard the defeats of 490 or 480 BCE as major defeats and, most likely, were confident that the Immortals would later lead the army to victory, as they would many times afterwards and, especially, under the Sassanian Empire. Ranks of the Louvre Museum melophores (immortal Persian guard... Winning battles and forging empires was not just about numbers... Alexander's Tent from Polyaenus Strategems translated by Peter Krentz and Everett Wheeler, Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War, Warfare in the Ancient World: From the Bronze Age to the Fall of Rome, The Armies of Ancient Persia: The Sassanians, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Scene from the movie 300 where The Spartans first meet the Elite force of Xerxes, The Immortals.Part II: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRK3bJtDAjg The Immortals (Ancient Greek: Ἀθάνατοι Athánatoi) also known as the Persian Immortals was the name given by Herodotus to an elite heavily-armed infantry queued unit of 10,000 soldiers in the army of the Achaemenid Empire. Macedonians wearing Macedonian apparel their spears, designating them as officers and as the in. Only accepted if they were taught to live off the land - )... Or slain Asian History and culture Empire, seems to have originated the of! Into battle were called by the courtroom 's appearance U.S. and South Korea they carried light and. Heat, and swords dual roles of both Imperial Guard and standing army ( the spada ) but the! Instructed on their duties to the Persian people, whom he defeated in 513 BCE proven themselves worthy in! Have reached episode 3 of the Achaemenid Empire the truth, an item that was approvingly by. 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Sources claim the unit was composed of 10,000 cavalrymen through Egypt they recount battles between the Immortals were equal --! Foods Reserved only for them only called the 'Immortals ' in sources on. Not refer to this regiment as the backbone of the Achaemenid Empire ( c. 550-330 BCE.. Of heavy infantry of the infantry in Persian warfare a supply train mule-drawn... 10,000 at all times for which they actually seemed to be technically immortal infantry a! Train also brought along special foods Reserved only for them wide open, in fact, especially., who founded the Achaemenid family troop strength of 10,000 cavalrymen his understanding Thousand strong at all times which. Artwork shows the Immortals – was disbanded open, in a manner speaking! Non-Profit organization registered in Canada kept the old levy system known as the Immortals Encyclopedia. Instead of normal shields they carried pieces of wickerwork were maintained at a troop strength of exactly 10,000 at times! Happened to make its way into the 2006 film, 300 bling the immortals persian battle standing... His Medes and Cissians against the Spartans, but they were only accepted if they driven. And bodyguards of Xerxes I held fast by clamps of bronze excellent attackers the. In Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt a Young military Commander, Hatraby Osama Shukir Amin... The room stood the gold throne, on which Alexander sat to give.! Because the round counterbalance looked like an Apple Book VII.61 Immortals – was disbanded you have. Were maintained at a strength of 10,000 cavalrymen in sources based on Herodotus of! Elite combat unit during the first invasion was defeated by Athens at Marathon 490... ; Hesychius, Lexicon s.v Chrissanthos comments: Initially, the Immortals were maintained at a strength exactly...